Election Mathematics

ElectionArchive.org & USCountVotes.org Click Text Here

NEW! Legislative Redistricting --
Area and Population Compactness and Population Density Distribution Measures by Kathy Dopp. This paper introduces a new measure for evaluating the proportional fairness of redistricting plans.

A Case Study of New York. Beginning on page 12 there is a list of IMPEDIMENTS TO PUBLIC OVERSIGHT OF ELECTORAL INTEGRITY in New York State and eleven electoral reform suggestions.

What conditions are necessary for election outcomes to be publicly-verifiably accurate? This is a one-pager (two-sided) suitable for a handout (to give to election officials and legislators?).

Support federal election reform requiring Paper Ballots and Hand Counts to Verify the Machine Counts. Here is my analysis of the bill 2009 Analysis of US Rep. Rush Holt's H.R. 2894, the Voter Confidence and Increased Accessibility Act

Voting News Blogspot Voting News about election integrity issues, voting machines, election fraud, voter access and legislation in United States and sometimes other locations

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NEW! Checking Election Outcome Accuracy -- Post-Election Auditing Sampling This paper makes significant improvements to existing post-election auditing sampling methodology.

An aside: The Four R's of Economic Recovery

The ElectionArchive.org and USCountVotes.org web site server has been taken down and most files moved here. If you need a file that is missing, please email kathy.dopp at gmail.com with the URL/filename you want.

Other work (some of this may be outdated now):

1. a shortened (ten page) version of a model post-election auditing legislative proposal with a new formula that is easy-to-use in a spreadsheet to estimate audit sample sizes that provide at least a 99% chance to detect the smallest amount of vote miscount that could alter an election outcome, and

2. a working draft of an analysis of US House Representative Rush Holt's election audit proposal that also provides a new formula for estimating election audit sample sizes that provide at most a 1% chance of not detecting vote miscount that could alter an election outcome, and

3. an election transparency bill for Utah that is supported by the League of Women Voters of Utah and we had hoped would be considered in the Utah legislature this year. You can read your own state's election statutes to see if it also needs revisions to conform to modern practice, federal statutes, and to allow for ballot reconciliation and public oversight over the electoral process.


Many people are still concerned about election integrity issues in the U.S. and around the world. Elections are wide-open to undetectable outcome-changing vote fraud and innocent error in most U.S. states, especially in close contests. Issues such as lack of independent scrutiny of election results are still unresolved, and new threats to election integrity, such as instant runoff voting and Internet Voting schemes, continue to emerge. Some ideas, such as electronic ballot voting or Instant Runoff Voting, may *sound* good at first glance but threaten to eviscerate public transparency, accuracy, and fairness of U.S. elections.

This site contains information on a few methods for achieving publicly verifiable election integrity and fairness, including ways to detect vote miscount, measure voter disenfranchisement levels, how to conduct manual post-election audits, analyze exit poll discrepancies, and how the public could oversee the integrity of the election process by examining election records and data; plus links to reports analyzing various voting systems and their costs.

Best regards,
Kathy Dopp
kathy.dopp at gmail.com